Review Questions - Intro to Anthropology
- What is Anthropology?
Who is the academic "father" of anthropology, and what central quetion did he pose which led to the four fields of study?
What are the four fields of anthropology?
Can you describe each of the four fields in some detail?
How can anthropology be applied?
- What are the principles of holism and ethnocentric awareness? What does cultural relativism mean?
Field 1: Biological Anthropology:
- Who proposed the ideas of evolutionary theory in its early years?
- What are the principles of Descent With Modification, or Natural Selection?
- What is the chief mechanism of evolutionary development?
- What defines a species and how do new species develop (i.e., what are
the four sources of genetic change and speciation)?
of Culture and Man
- What makes human beings unique among all other animals?
- What were the evolutionary stages of biological development of human beings
(by genus and species)?
- What happened to the Neanderthals?
- What "toolkits" developed with the different human evolutionary
- In relationship to the lower and middle paleolithic cultures, what other
early aspects of culture developed?
of Homo sapiens (modern humans)
- What is the single origin theory of Homo sapiens' development?
- What is the replacement (multi-regional) theory of Homo sapiens' development?
- What were the cultural advancements of upper paleolithic man?
- When was the most recent ice age and how did it impact human development?
- How did Homo sapiens migrate to the New World?
- Who are the "Clovis people"?
Variation and Adaptation
- What is adaptation and how is it related to human biological
and cultural variation?
- What is a possible explanation for variation in human facial
- What is the explanation for variation in human skin color?
- In what ways are human health and disease connected to biological
- How are these physical variations culturally important?
Field 2: Archaeology
the Past with Archaeology
- What are the four types of evidence sought by archaeologists?
- What methods and tools do archaeologists use to find evidence of human
cultures of the past?
- What is geological stratification and how does it work?
- What are the relative methods of dating archaeological evidence?
- What are the absolute methods of dating archaeological evidence?
The Rise of Domestication
- What is the difference between food production and food
- What is the "Neolithic Revolution" and what factors led to
- When was the origin of the first towns
- What were the first cities and city-state civilizations to emerge?
Where did they emerge?
- Why did city-states develop?
- What is the pattern of civilizational development (in terms of rising and falling)?
Fields 3 & 4: Linguistics and Ethnology
- What defines a human "culture"?
- Do animals other than humans have culture? What makes human culture unique?
- What are the traits of cultural invention, diffusion and acculturation?
- How is language central to the existence of culture?
- What is a meme? Give an example.
- What are the four branches of linguistic study (found in the dictionary definition of language)?
- To which branch of linguistics is the study of language families
- When did written language develop?
- What is the Sapr-Whorf hypothesis?
- To which branch of linguistics is the study of mythology
- What are the functions of mythology in a society?
- When and where did human food production strategies first change
from traditional food collection (foraging)?
- How does food production relate to other institutional social changes?
- What is pastoralism?
- What is horticulture?
- What is simple agriculture?
- What is intensive agriculture?
- What changes to social stratification accompanies each of these developments
in food production?
- What are the three types of economic distribution systems?
- What are the different varieties of reciprocity (give examples)?
- What are redistribution systems (give examples)?
- What is a market (retail) system (give examples)?
- What are the social class effects of each type of distribution system?
- What is social stratification and how is it measured?
- What is a rank hierarchy?
- What is egalitarianism?
- What are other types of political structures?
- What is the relationship of ownership to social stratification?
- What is the impact of the modern West on indigenous societies?