Review Questions - Anthropology Exam 2


Discovering the Past with Archaeology (Chp 6 & Module 2)
  • What are the four types of evidence sought by archaeologists?
  • What methods do archaeologists use to find evidence of human cultures of the past?
  • What is geological stratification and how does it work?
  • What is the difference between site conservation and site excavation?
  • How do archaeologists analyze evidence using formal and metric measures?
  • What are the relative methods of dating archaeological evidence covered in class?
  • What are the absolute methods of dating archaeological evidence covered in class?
  • How does the concept of radioactive half-life apply to dating archaeological evidence?

 

The Rise of Domestication and Civilization (Chp 7)

  • What is the difference between food production and food collection?
  • What is the "Neolithic Revolution" and what factors led to its occurence?
  • What were the first animals and plants to be domesticated?
  • What is the significance of the discovery of Gobekli Tepe in 1994?
  • Why did domestication occur around the world at roughly the same time?
  • What were the social consequences of domestication?
  • When was the origin of the first towns
  • and villages?
  • What were the first cities and city-state civilizations to emerge? Where did they emerge?
  • Why did city-states develop?
  • What is the cyclical pattern of civilizations?

Cultural Anthropology (Chp 8)

  • What is the definition of culture?
  • What is the relationship between artifacts and cultural values?
  • What is cultural invention? Diffusion? Acculturation?
  • What is ethnocentrism and how is it related to cultural relativism and cultural ideals?
  • What is ethnography?
  • What are two important goals of fieldwork in cultural anthropology?
  • Who are some famous ethnographers?

OUTLINE:

Discovering the Past with Archaeology (Chapter 6, Module 2)

1. Archaelogical Methods

a. Types of Evidence
            i.
Artifacts
            ii.
Ecofacts
            iii. Fossils
            iv. Features

b. Finding the Evidence
            i. Finding Sites
            ii.
Stratification and Taphonomy
            iii. Methods of discovery: Pedestrian survey; Remote Sensing techniques (ground penetrating radar, 3D laser scans)

c. Analyzing the Evidence
            i.
Conservation and Restoration (e.g. the Mayan temple at Yaxuna)
            ii.
Excavation
                       
1. Formal measurement
                        2. Metric measurement

d. Dating the evidence
i. Relative (contextual) me thods:
              1. Stratigraphy ,
Indicator Artifacts
              2. F-U-N trio


ii.
Absolute (chronometric) methods:
              1.Writing (5kya)
              2.Dendrochronology (~10kya)
              3.Thermoluminescence/Electron Spin (100kya)
              4. Amino Acid Racemization (100kya)
             
5.Radiometric dating, principle of "half-life"
                           a. Radiocarbon: N-14 --> C-14 --> N-14 (50-80kya)
                          
b. Potassium-Argon (1000kya)
                           c. Uranium-Thorium and Uranium-Lead
(500kya / 4.5bya)

The Rise of Domestication and Civilization (Chapter 7)

The Neolithic (Agricultural) Revolution: Food Production vs. Food Collection (Foraging/Hunting/ Gathering)

1. Domestication of Plants and Animals

a. In the Epi-paleolithic period of 12-15kya, ceramic pottery and early settlement was developed, particularly in the Near East (Mesopotamia).

   - Shortly thereafter came one of the most important revolutions in human history, the agricultural revolution, also known as the Neolithic revolution.

b. Food production technology (domestication) developed between 10,000 and 8,000 years ago after millions of years when hunting and gathering (or food collection) was the sole basis for human subsistence

  i. Sedentarism: living in permanent villages; domestication made this possible.  

  ii. Broad-spectrum collecting: the change from hunting big-game to relying on a wider   variety of food sources.

c. The first animals to be tamed were dogs.

     Dogs were domesticated about 12,000 years B.P. (before present) in the Near East. Wolves are the direct ancestors of all dog breeds in existence today. The DNA makeup of wolves and dogs is almost identical.   Other early domesticated animals include: 
- Sheep and Goats (9k BP, Near East)
- Cattle and pigs (8k BP, Near East) 
- Horses (6k BP, Central Asia/N. Africa) 
- Cats and Camels (5k BP, Near East / Arabia, Asia) 
- Chicken (4k BP, S. Asia)
(see Figure 8-1, p. 136 text)
Traits suitable for domestication were: docility, non-territoriality, hierarchical (humans co-opt leadership role), uninhibited breeding, fast growth

    MesoAmerican domestication:  Semi-nomadism (non-sedentary life) continued long after domestication.  Why?

Domesticated items included desirable items, but were not  necessary for survival:
    
- Bottle Gourds (used for carrying water)    
- Tomatoes     
- Cotton     
- Maize (corn)
    

  d. Why did domestication occur around the world at roughly the same time?

    Three theories:  
i
. Climate Change (wild resources were less available) (Childe) 
ii. Cultural Evolution
(the idea of domestication was ripe) (Braidwood)  
iii. Population Pressure
(desired food availability reduced by competition) (Binford-Flannery)

  e. Consequences of domestication

i. Population growth   A sharp increase in population occurred when agriculture developed. 

ii. Decline in health  Tooth enamel and bone infusions show that domestication did not improve health – human stature (size) also decreased 

iii. Artificial selection  (Dogs, Heiki crabs, corn are examples)

2. The Rise of Civilization and States

  By 8,000 BCE (before common era, or BC), sedentarism led to the first towns and villages

a. ~ 6000 BCE: the origins of communities and towns    

            i.Evidence of political organization and status is apparent in houses were different sizes, economies emerged, and chiefdoms (separate communities organized by political authority) developed.   

            ii. The true end of the stone age: Copper smelting (metallurgy) became common in the Near East (Anatolia), though it took time to perfect;   Bronze Age = 3500BC - 1100BC 

b. ~ 3500 BCE: the rise of cities and civilization

    “Civilization” is a term meaning, literally, “citified”
  i
. Urban development was underway

      Is the oldest city in India (7500 BCE)?
  or the Middle East (8,000 BCE)
?
 
(it depends on how you define city)
- Catalhoyuk (Turkey)    
-
Uruk / Babylon (Iraq) (2003 war destroys arch. evidence)     
-
Mohenjo-Daro (India)

      ii. As early cities were connected by trade routes and political alignments, city-states emerged.    

c. City-State development
i
. ~ 3500 BCE, city-state development occurred

  A city-state is a self-governing community consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory.

Old World Civilizations:

Year -   Region  - City-State
 

      3500 BCE -   Mesopotamia  - Uruk
3000 BCE  - Mesopotamia  - Sumeria
2700 BCE  - Egypt  - Old Kingdom
2300 BCE  - India  Harappa
1600 BCE -
China  - Shang Dynasty
      
ii
. New World Civilizations (developed after 1000 BCE)
Year -   Region  - City-State
 
800 BCE  - Mexico  - Monte Alban
200 BCE 
- N. America  - Hopewell Mounds
200 BCE  - S. America - Peru city-states
200 AD -
  Mexico - Teotihuacan empire
700 AD -  
Mexico  - Mayan city-states
700 AD  - Peru  - Wari empire

iii. The civilizations of Africa began developing around 100 AD
Year  - Region  - City-State 
100-940 AD    East Africa  Aksum
750-1100 AD     West Africa  Ghana
800-1550 AD     West Africa  Mali (CrashCourse)
1100-1900 AD  West Africa  Songhai
1300-1900 AD  South-Central Africa      Bantu
1440-1900 AD  West Africa  Benin (4:30 - 9:07)
1137-1975 AD  East Africa   Ethiopia

d. Why did city-states form?  
i.
Irrigation
(labor and management led to political systems)  

ii. Population Growth and War
(resource competition led to incursions and the need for protection)  
iii. Trade
(local and long-distance)  

Note:
No one factor explains the rise of city states.

e. Civilizations have a cyclical nature
Without exception, all great civilizations of the past have fallen
due to political, economic or environmental collapse, and been replaced by new social orders.


Cultural Anthropology (Chapter 8)

1. What is culture?
     Culture is learned, shared, ideas, behavior, and action

a. Culture is defined by Symbols & Language
                    Symbols are elements of meaning shared by a culture.

i. Language is uniquely human.                
ii. Symbolic interaction is defined by culture.
iii. Cultural transmission occurs with language.

b. Culture develops as a result of our natural human ability to imitate.
                                Q: Where does our ability to imitate and learn come from? A: It evolved.Mirror Neurons

c. Artifacts
are the wide range of material human creations. These artifacts always reflect underlying cultural values.

i. The tension between material and non-material culture is realized in the balance between form (design) and function (usefulness) of an artifact.                             

d. Is culture unique to humans? No!
    Chimps use tools!
    Great Ape Culture Finding Narrows Divide Between Humans
    Ancient chimps 'used stone tools'

e. Cultural Change: Invention, Diffusion and Acculturation

i. Invention can be accidental (unconscious) or deliberate Discovery and innovation are part of the inventive process.
ii. Diffusion happens when cultural elements move from one culture to another
iii. Acculturation is like diffusion, but cultural power is the force that creates adoption

2. Studying Ethnography

a. Holistic Perspective
    Characterized by comprehension of the parts of something as intimately interconnected and explicable only by reference to the whole.

b. Awareness of Ethnocentric Bias
  Ethnocentric (adj.): to characterize by or base one’s viewpoint on the attitude that one's own group is superior.

c. Ethnography

i. Ethnography is the firsthand personal study of a local cultural setting. “Ethnographers try to understand the whole of a particular culture, not just fragments (e.g., only the economy, family or politics).” (Spradley 2008)

ii. Early ethnographers conducted research almost exclusively among small-scale, relatively isolated indigenous societies, with simple technologies, politics and economies. The cultures of indigenous peoples are increasingly threatened by modernization. (Global Response)

d. Ethnographic Fieldwork involves the researcher taking part in the activities being observed. Ethnographic goals:

i. Achieving Realism: The writer’s goal was to produce an accurate, objective, scientific account of the study community.

ii. Comparing Differences: The writer’s goal was to compare differences between culture in a non-biased way.

iii. Fieldwork: Pros, Cons and Dangers

Positives (Pros)
–Access the culture
–Determine actual behavior
–Develop rapport
–Biculturalism


Problems (Cons)
-Language
-Lies
-Ethics
-Culture shock (Maasai) (Mursi)
-Witness effect (cultural/individual bias)
-Heisenberg effect (you affect what you are observing)
-“Going native”

Dangers and Difficulties

–Faux Pas
–Group Hostility/ Defense Reactions
–Poor Sanitation
–Environmental Stresses
–Health and Illness
–Civil Wars

e. Examples: Three Generations of “Fieldworkers”

i. Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942): is generally considered the father of ethnography. He did “salvage ethnography,” recording cultural diversity that was threatened by westernization. Trobriand Magic was one of his more well read ethnographies.

ii. Margaret Mead (1901-1978): Popularized the insights of fieldwork with a book titled Coming of Age in Samoa about culture and sexuality the peoples of the South Pacific islands.

iii. Napoleon Chagnon (living): Famous for his exposing the Yąnomamö natives of the Amazon rainforest in Venezuela to the modern world. Controversy has recently emerged.