Review Notes Sociology 101 Morrisville State College Exam 2

Major Questions to Review for Exam 2:

Chapter 5 - Socialization

- What is the definition of socialization?
- What is the definition of personality?
- What is the definition of identity?
- What is the nature vs. nurture debate?
- Who is Phineas Gage and what does his case demonstrate?
- What are "mirror neurons"?
- What effect does social isolation have on people and some animals? Give an example.
- Who and what are our agents of socialization?
- What were Sigmund Freud's ideas about the connection between self and socialization?

- What were George Mead's ideas about the connection between self and socialization?
- Online Media: What is the thesis and what are some details about the article Extreme Isolation by Kingsley Davis?

Chapter 6 - Social Groups and Conformity

- What is a Social Group (what is a crowd, what is a category)?
- What are Primary vs. Secondary Groups?
- What are the expressive and instrumental functions of groups?
- What does the phrase "six degrees of separation" mean?
- What are in-groups, out-groups and reference groups?
- What is Social Network Analysis and some of its principles (e.g. Metcalfe's Law)?
- What are some different type of leadership roles?
- What is the Asch Conformity Experiment about?
- How likely is it that people will conform in small groups?
- What two types of conformity characterize the reasons why we go along with the group?
- What is the Milgram Obedience Experiment about?
- What factor does authority play in creating group conformity?
- Online Media: Six Degrees of Separation - In what way is modern society like a complex network? How tightly woven is the social web?

Chapter 7 - Deviance

- How is deviance defined (violation of norms - expected behavior; neither good nor bad; demand sanctions)
- What are the social functions of deviance according to Durkheim?
- What does it mean to say that deviance is defined by power (Marx; rule-makers vs. rule-breakers)?
What is 'Labeling Theory'? (Lemert; primary vs. secondary deviance; stigma)
- What are the four parts of the criminal justice system?
What different types of sanctions exist in the criminal justice system?
- Why is the U.S. the nation with the highest incarceration rate in the world?
- Online Media: How and why were the boys in The Saints and the Roughnecks (Chambliss) differently labeled?