Review Notes Sociology 101 SUNY Morrisville Exam 2

Major Ideas and Concepts to Review for Exam 2:

Chapter 4 - Social Construction

Chapter 5 - Socialization

- What is the definition of socialization?
- What is the definition of personality?
- What is the definition of identity?
- What is the nature vs. nurture debate?
- Who is Phineas Gage and what does his case demonstrate?
- What are "mirror neurons"?
- What effect does social isolation have on people and some animals? Give an example.
- Who and what are our agents of socialization?
- What are the contributions of Sigmund Freud to understanding personality?
- What are the contributions of George Mead to understanding personality?
- Online Media: Extreme Isolation - What are the effects on children of extreme social isolation?

Chapter 6 - Social Groups and Conformity

- What does the phrase "six degrees of separation" mean?
- What are in-groups, out-groups and reference groups?
- What is the Asch Conformity Experiment about?
- How likely is it that people will conform in small groups?
- What two types of conformity characterize the reasons why we go along with the group?
- What is the Milgram Obedience Experiment about?
- What factor does authority play in creating group conformity?
- Online Media: Six Degrees of Separation - In what way is modern society like a complex network? How tightly woven is the social web?

Chapter 7 - Deviance

- How is deviance defined?
- What is "positive deviance"?
- What types of social sanctions exist in reaction to deviance?
- What are the social functions of deviance according to Durkheim?
- What are the categories of deviance according to Merton's strain theory?
- What does it mean to say that deviance is defined by power (Marx; rule-makers vs. rule-breakers)?
- What is 'Labeling Theory'? (Lemert; primary vs. secondary deviance; stigma)
- What four parts make up the structure of the U.S. criminal justice system?
What different reasons for criminal sanctions can be given?
- Why is the U.S. the nation with the highest incarceration rate in the world?
- Online Media: Crime - What are the effects of social status and class on criminal labelling and recidivism?