Review Notes Sociology 101 Morrisville State College Exam 2

Major Ideas and Concepts to Review for Exam 2:

D. Social Construction (text Chapter 4 and course notes)


E. Socialization (text Chapter 5 and course notes)

- What is the definition of socialization?
- What is the definition of personality?
- What is the definition of identity?
- What is the nature vs. nurture debate?
- Who is Phineas Gage and what does his case demonstrate?
- What are "mirror neurons"?
- What effect does social isolation have on people and some animals? Give an example.
- Who and what are our agents of socialization?
- What are the contributions of George Mead to understanding personality?

F. Social Groups and Conformity (text Chapter 6 and course notes)

- What does the phrase "six degrees of separation" mean?
- What are in-groups and out-groups?
- What is a reference group?
- What is the Six Degrees of Separation idea, and how is it connectted to social networks?
- What is a sociogram?
- What is Metcalfe's Law?

- What is the Asch Conformity Experiment about?
- How likely is it that people will conform in small groups?
- What two types of conformity characterize the reasons why we go along with the group?
- What is the Milgram Obedience Experiment about?
- What factor does authority play in creating group conformity?
- What is the Stanford Prison Experiment and what were its outcomes?


G. Deviance (text Chapter 7 and course notes)

- How is deviance defined (violation of norms - expected behavior; neither good nor bad; demand sanctions)
- How would the relationship between norms and laws look if drawn as a Venn diagram?
- What are the social functions of deviance according to Durkheim?
- What does it mean to say that deviance is defined by power (Marx/conflict theory)?
What is 'Labeling Theory'? (primary vs. secondary deviance; stigma)
- What are the four parts of the criminal justice system?
What different types of sanctions exist in the criminal justice system?
- Why is the U.S. the nation with the highest incarceration rate in the world?